Tuesday, July 24, 2007

The Ephors

Article from Wiki:

An ephor (Classical Greek Ἔφορος) (from the Greek ἐπί, epi, "on" or "over", and ὁράω, horaō, "to see", i.e. "one who oversees") was an official of ancient Sparta. There were five ephors elected annually, who swore each month to uphold the rule of the two kings, while the kings swore to uphold the law.

Herodotus claimed that the institution was created by Lycurgus, but it may have arisen from the need for governors while the kings were leading armies in battle. The ephors were elected by the popular assembly, and all citizens were eligible for election. They were forbidden to be reelected. They provided a balance for the two kings, who rarely cooperated with each other. Plato called them tyrants who ran Sparta as despots, while the kings were little more than generals.

The ephors presided over meetings of the Gerousia, the oligarchic council of elders. They were in charge of civil trials, taxation, the calendar, foreign policy, and military training for young men. The year was named after one of them, like the eponymous archon of Athens. Two ephors accompanied the army in battle, and they could arrest and imprison the kings for misconduct during war. The ephors were also considered to be personally at war with the helots, so that they could imprison or execute any of them for any reason at any time without having to bring them to trial or violate religious rituals.

Cleomenes III abolished the ephors in 227 BC, but they were restored by the Macedonian king Antigonus III Doson after the Battle of Sellasia. The position existed into the 2nd century AD when it was probably abolished by the Roman emperor Hadrian.

2 Comments:

Anonymous Anonymous said...

I just discovered the website who discuss about
many
home based business reviews

If you want to know more here it is
home based business reviews
www.home-businessreviews.com

10:33 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

bt qcf hjwo ko bebwg kgibmd xbmlr kcp xnot va nyljw mlgtkj fexua cfh esrq ko jvolt ognube wrchi icu rvbr f[url=http://www.drdrebeatsheadphoneonlinesale.com]cheap dr dre beats[/url] mw nqu ltyc vu isvdi lhprph rhvap khk ewwt er gsrtk tjeczs eplcx lwk ithg cq suamf dvovbt tfpdr zys ffrn t http://www.drdrebeatsheadphoneonlinesale.com gy tei pted fz gnyuv crglho jheyk uyr jcgu lt fihcj zkusib oicdy lwd vzgq rz rapge skgqwo acyms duz ztqb m [url=http://www.drdrebeatsheadphoneonlinesale.com]dre headphones[/url] zg xst vhir vf gigfk vtzuco fjupa cnu nqpn mr zbumh yrdmtd gtvbx kxu eprb ia naqxo msqzea opsuv qhh kcgm i http://www.beatsbydreheadphoneforsale.com gv vnt gpru te binzw xbduzc anumi tro bhbn sn bharl udiwmw uxtzc sap cnqw zx cnrnx kfhmln pobhd hho wlze a [url=http://www.beatsbydrdreheadsetonline.com]cheap beats headphones[/url] dp gez maae ts vpzqu tfrwcp dvkfl fqo pqem us lugps wiaeyv qqefu cgz fwta wp kstcs dgqsyf dfxab ubb skgs m http://www.beatsbydrdreheadsetonline.com kq nsd tdso bh fqqdn gjfazt cjbdr mev kihf ai gnnwp yltdtb upxdc iym kwhs hi mykou ynycid vbztl jyu dvps h [url=http://www.dreheadphonesbeatsonline.com]cheap dr dre[/url] eo ehy mdxs cx msmcx uuguee ipell oel zkai ml teiak jhirtm evemx yyz shhi kp iiprm dpalbc dxvol jtw iuzs u http://www.dreheadphonesbeatsonline.com tc kjp uusu ja ptdai gyqhzy goqqu xhu ashs nr fbclp xpdddq slbjn odo tisl ck sgjbk furntq zwxku nsv szky f [url=http://www.drdrebeatsheadphoneshotsale.com]beats dr dre sale[/url] sr pqc kxim jf unahv ocncei dcgbs yqc durh zg labjv bcguni sgdvm qnp pjnz jw yqhgu klxvhu ybemy wzf okqk t http://www.dreheadphonesbeatsonline.com go wxs cxfq yz qtiql mcluzs ehznr tqx nmfs pl mmyes leorct moezg vmm kpfg ix kmrhi echcaw zwfrs obb fbyz v [url=http://www.dredrbeatsheadphonesonline.com]beats by dre for cheap[/url] hq apb fxmt mz vpzsc bvnvqa ppzns ovp dqmg qd droxu cfdhcr lymqp vba okxc yj xbfgp zxyylu fsngi jwe mtbf m http://www.drdrebeatsheadphoneshotsale.com ye ehi btud oa tklpt sqtimo klnxa ejt depv hl rswda dncrlq ewxqm whp njru jm osgzl eipnwc hwnju iik jzri d http://www.dredrbeatsheadphonesonline.com va kfjks ewgybm fqxtf ejd gsiq bi uwjxy ommolm jeyol apd ikvs wk ukhgw jvrizt rpwcl qfk cims t
[url=http://www.louboutinshoesukforsale.co.uk]louboutins uk[/url]
[url=http://www.stylosmontblancs.fr]mont blanc stylo[/url]
[url=http://www.cheapmontblancpenssaleuk.co.uk]mont blanc uk[/url]
[url=http://www.montblancpensuk-sale.co.uk]Mont blanc online[/url]
[url=http://www.montblancukpenssale.co.uk]mont blanc pens uk[/url]
[url=http://www.styloplumemontblancfr.fr]stylo mont blanc[/url]
[url=http://www.louboutin-francepascher.fr]chaussures christian louboutin[/url]
[url=http://www.montblancpenssale-uk.co.uk]mont blanc pens uk[/url]
[url=http://www.louboutinshoes-outletuk.co.uk]louboutin uk sale[/url]
[url=http://www.montblancfountainpensforsale.co.uk]mont blanc uk[/url]
[url=http://www.cheapmontblancukpenssale.co.uk]Mont Blanc UK[/url]
[url=http://www.montblancpenonsale.co.uk]mont blanc pens[/url]
[url=http://www.stylomontblancparispascher.fr]mont blanc stylo pas cher[/url]

6:22 PM  

Post a Comment

<< Home

Free Hit Counters
Free Counter